H.E.V. (Hybrid Electric Vehicle)- Any E.V. that uses an A.P.U. to augment the traction battery is an HEV. Hybrids consume less fuel per unit of work than conventional vehicles, because their systems are engineered to operate at peak efficiency. This also translates into less pollutants emitted. Currently, experimental HEV designs emit 1/10 the pollution allowed by the 2002 federal automotive guidelines.
· A.P.U. (Auxiliary Power Unit) – Any system that uses a fueled device to turn an alternator or generator which supplies current to the EVs propulsion system. Such systems allow EVs to be independent of the wall socket., while utilizing fuel at maximum efficiency. Vehicle APUs can be based on turbines, rotary motors, fuel cells, Stirling engines, or even conventional piston engines. The point of using an APU is to allow reductions in the size of an EVs traction battery and motor, saving weight in those systems
· E.V.(Electric Vehicle) – Any vehicle using an electric traction motor for propulsion. Unless otherwise advertised, to provide motive energy EV’s use storage batteries which- must be recharged from 120 or 240 volt mains when exhausted, a time-consuming process that, so far, must be performed at home.
· Traction Battery – This term applies to those batteries specially designed for E.V. use. They can be deeply discharged hundreds of times without harm, and a large vehicle battery can store many kilowatt-hours of energy. Traction batteries are very bulky and very heavy,
· Solar Panel/Solar Cells – Solar cells are made of a special crystalline silicon that produces a weak electric current flow when exposed to sunlight. A large number of panels can be connected to supply a stronger current. The number of panels needed to supply enough energy to operate an EV in real-time use would cover the roof of a 2,500 sq.ft. home. Solar cells do not store energy, and if deprived of light, cease to deliver current.
· Solar Car – ‘Solar Cars are special, purpose-built vehicles, engineered to make use of the minute amount of energy they receive from the solar cells mounted on their bodies.. Solar cars dont run when the sun doesn’t shine, only carry one passenger (the driver), have motors so small that speed is not an issue, and are so lightly built that it is a major accomplishment for one to even finish the special races they compete in, which consist of cross-country endurance runs at very low average speeds. If you see a vehicle of unfamiliar design that is not completely covered with silicon solar cells, it is not a ‘solar car.’ Solar cells have such a poor conversion efficiency of light to electricity that they are not able to power a practical automobile of their own accord.